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Ocular Drug Delivery System: Challenges and Opportunities

Umesh D Laddha, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar


Eye is most sensitive organ of body which is highly protected to prevent entry of any exogenous substance. This defence mechanism of eye renders the development of ocular drug delivery system as the challenging task to ophthalmic formulation scientist. Knowledge of anatomy, physiology and barriers for transportation of drug at different target site of eye is essential to develop successful ocular formulation. Topical administration of drug in the form of eye drop is most preferable approach to treat various elements of eye. However; because of several dominating factors presents at ocular site result in poor ocular bioavailability (around 10% of total administered dose). In last two decades, several Novel Ocular Drug Delivery Systems (NODDS) like ocular inserts, in-situ formulation and nano-technology based products have been developed to improve ocular treatment. Current article intends to summarize basics required to know for development of ophthalmic formulation, conventional treatment with some modifications to enhance retention time and recently developed NODDS.


Keywords: Ophthalmic formulations, anatomy and physiology, novel drug delivery systems, ocular inserts, in-situ, nano-formulation

Cite this Article

Laddha Umesh D, Kshirsagar Sanjay J. Ocular Drug Delivery System: Challenges and Opportunities. Research and Reviews: A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2018; 9(3): 14–30p

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