Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Review on Phytochemicals as Novel Therapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Diabetes

Ritish Das, Jaspreet Kaur, Sharon Thomas, Vinod Kumar Gupta


Diabetes is a worldwide concern. People are suffering from different variants of diabetes in the world, of which Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes are very common in the globe. In labor, gestational diabetes affects many ladies. Some other types of diabetes occur due to genetic changes and problems in pancreatic activity. Numerous Indians suffer from type-2 diabetes. Three diagnosis methods are employed for the detection of diabetes. The alteration in activity of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase can be attributed to progression of diabetes. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes with the aid of 5 therapeutic methods are described along with their disadvantages. The use of phytochemicals is a novel therapeutic tool for diabetes rather than the traditional drug-based method. Some medicinal plant names are listed from which effective phytochemical components demonstrating anti-diabetic properties have been extracted.


Diabetes, phytochemicals, type-1-diabetes, type-2-diabetes, therapeutics methods

Full Text:



Foluke Bosun-Arije S, et al. A nurse-led conceptual model to inform patient-centred, type 2 diabetes mellitus management in public clinical settings. Journal of Research in Nursing. 2021; 26(8):763–78.

Unnikrishnan R, Anjana RM, Mohan V. Diabetes mellitus and its complications in India. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2016;12(6):357–70.

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. 2009;32(Supplement_1):S62–7.

Kharroubi A. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century. World Journal of Diabetes. 2015;6(6):850.

Craig, Maria E. et al. “Definition, Epidemiology and Classification of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents”. Pediatric Diabetes. 2009; 10:1–2.

Liaw ST, Taggart J, Yu H, et al., Integrating electronic health record information to support integrated care: practical application of ontologies to improve the accuracy of diabetes disease registers. Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 2014;52:364–72.

Group ID. Update of mortality attributable to diabetes for the IDF Diabetes Atlas: Estimates for the year 2013. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2015;109(3):461–5.

Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998;15(7):539–53.

Hanas R, John G; International HBA1c Consensus Committee. 2010 consensus statement on the worldwide standardization of the hemoglobin A1C measurement. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(8):1903–4.

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;33 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S62–9.

World Health Organization. Use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: abbreviated report of a WHO consultation (http:// diagnosis_diabetes2011/en/index.html)

Zhang X, Gregg EW, et al. A1C level and future risk of diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(7):1665–73.

Agarwal P, Gupta R. Alpha-amylase inhibition can treat diabetes mellitus. Res. Rev. J. Med. Health Sci. 2016;5(4):1–8.

Bode BW, Garg SK. The emerging role of adjunctive noninsulin antihyperglycemic therapy in the management of type 1 diabetes. Endocrine Practice. 2016;22(2):220–30.

Lebovitz HE. Adjunct therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2010;6(6):326–34.

Frandsen CS, Dejgaard TF, Madsbad S. Non-insulin drugs to treat hyperglycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2016;4(9):766–80.

Otto-Buczkowska E, Jainta N. Pharmacological treatment in diabetes mellitus type 1–insulin and what else?. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2018;16(1).

George P, McCrimmon RJ. Potential role of non‐insulin adjunct therapy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetic medicine. 2013;30(2):179–88.

Vella S, Buetow L, Royle P, Livingstone S, Colhoun HM, Petrie JR. The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes: a systematic review of efficacy. Diabetologia. 2010;53(5):809–20.

Jacobsen IB, Henriksen JE, Beck-Nielsen H. The effect of metformin in overweight patients with type 1 diabetes and poor metabolic control. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105(3):145–9.

Lund SS, Tarnow L, et al. Effect of adjunct metformin treatment on levels of plasma lipids in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2009;11(10):966–77.

Abdelghaffar S, Attia AM. Metformin added to insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus in adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009(1).

Bacha F, Klinepeter Bartz S. Insulin resistance, role of metformin and other non‐insulin therapies in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Pediatric diabetes. 2016;17(8):545–58.

Anderson J, Peña AS, Sullivan T, et al. Does metformin improve vascular health in children with type 1 diabetes? Protocol for a one year, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. BMC pediatrics. 2013;13(1):1–0.

Otto-Buczkowska E, Jainta N. Pharmacological treatment in diabetes mellitus type 1–insulin and what else?. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2018;16(1).

Bakris GL, Fonseca VA, Sharma K, Wright EM. Renal sodium–glucose transport: role in diabetes mellitus and potential clinical implications. Kidney international. 2009;75(12):1272–7.

Bays H. From victim to ally: the kidney as an emerging target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Current medical research and opinion. 2009;25(3):671–81.

Idris I, Donnelly R. Sodium–glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitors: an emerging new class of oral antidiabetic drug. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2009;11(2):79–88.

Nair S, Wilding JP. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors as a new treatment for diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;95(1):34–42.

Mietlicki-Baase EG. Amylin-mediated control of glycemia, energy balance, and cognition. Physiology & behavior. 2016;162:130–40.

Otto-Buczkowska E, Jarosz-Chobot P, Machnica L. The role of amylin in glucose homeostasis regulation and possible future usage in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia Doswiadczalnai Kliniczna. 2009;9(2):41–0.

Edelman SV. Optimizing diabetes treatment using an amylin analogue. The Diabetes Educator. 2008;34(1_suppl):4S–10S.

Riddle MC, Yuen KC, de Bruin TW, et al. Fixed ratio dosing of pramlintide with regular insulin before a standard meal in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2015;17(9):904–7.

Meier JJ, Nauck MA. Incretin-based therapies: where will we be 50 years from now?. Diabetologia. 2015;58(8):1745–50..

Otto-Buczkowska E, Jainta N. Pharmacological treatment in diabetes mellitus type 1–insulin and what else?. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2018;16(1).

Dejgaard TF, Knop FK, Tarnow L, et al. Efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide added to insulin therapy in poorly regulated patients with type 1 diabetes-a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study: The Lira-1 study. BMJ open. 2015;5(4):e007791.

Jung GS, Jeon JH, Choe MS, et al. Renoprotective effect of gemigliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. 2016;40(3):211–21.

Salheen SM, Panchapakesan U, Pollock CA, Woodman OL. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin preserves endothelial function in mesenteric arteries from type 1 diabetic rats without decreasing plasma glucose. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0143941.

MacLean CD, Littenberg B, Kennedy AG. Limitations of diabetes pharmacotherapy: results from the Vermont Diabetes Information System study. BMC Family Practice. 2006;7(1):1–6.

Singh, Dr Rambir & Arif, Tasleem& Khan, Imran & Sharma, Dr Poonam. Phytochemicals in antidiabetic drug discovery. Journal of Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences.2014; 1(1):1–33.

Zhao C, Yang C, Wai ST, et al. Regulation of glucose metabolism by bioactive phytochemicals for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;59(6):830–47.

Nathan DM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo RA, et al. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: implications for care. Diabetes care. 2007;30(3):753–9.

Carson AP, Reynolds K, Fonseca VA, Muntner P. Comparison of A1C and fasting glucose criteria to diagnose diabetes among US adults. Diabetes care. 2010;33(1):95–7.

Hu Y, Liu W, Chen Y, et al. Combined use of fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c in the screening of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Acta diabetologica. 2010;47(3):231–6.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Research & Reviews: A Journal of Drug Formulation, Development and Production